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What Is The Purpose Of A Battery Management System-Introduction And Protection

What Is The Purpose Of A Battery Management System-Introduction And Protection

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A battery management system (BMS) is an electronic regulator for monitoring and controlling the charging and discharging of rechargeable batteries.?

Battery management systems of different sorts are utilized in many devices that utilize rechargeable batteries. They are also standard in data centers, where UPS (uninterruptable force supplies) keep servers online. Vehicles, mainly electric, incorporate a battery management system, as do regular compact gadgets like Mp3 players and cell phones.

BMS monitors several factors affecting battery life. They can monitor one-cell or multi-cell battery systems. These batteries control the conditions of different cells. Some systems connect to computers for superior monitoring, logging, email alerts, and more.

How do you use battery management?

A BMS checks ongoing estimations from the chemical battery, modifies charging/discharging parameters, and imparts this information to end-users. These sensors can monitor battery voltage, condition of charge (SOC), condition of wellbeing (SOH), temperature, and other necessary calculations. They can even show charging time on a simple to-peruse "fuel check."

To understand how to use the battery management system, you just need to comprehend when and where we use battery management system:

Battery management systems offer various advantages for many battery chemistries.

Consequently, a BMS is often utilized in off-grid applications and battery applications, including generators and a power inverter, telecom, hospitals, and server farms. That's just the beginning.?

But, for lithium-ion batteries, a BMS doesn't merely offer benefits; it's absolute security that needs to reduce the possibility of fires and blasts. That is because li-ion has the most effective density, and overcharging can cause thermal runaway and combustion.?

Thus, in li-ion batteries, BMS supports battery cells work inside their optimal tasks window (counting temperature, current, voltage, most extreme charge and discharge current cut-off times, and so on.). A BMS can also help ensure cells are appropriately balanced.

What is the battery management system built for?

Battery Management System means different things to various people. To some people, it is merely Battery Monitoring, keeping a mark on the critical operational parameters while charging and discharging, such as voltages and currents and the battery inside and ambient heat.

There are three principal objects common to all Battery Management Systems built for:-

  • Defend the cells or the battery from harm
  • Increase the life of the battery
  • Secure the battery in a state in which it can fulfil the operative requirements of the application for which it was defined.

To accomplish these objectives, the BMS may include one or more of the below functions:

  • Cell Protection?Protecting the battery from out of tolerance operating conditions is significant to all BMS devices. In use, the BMS must provide full cell protection to cover almost any eventuality. Performing a battery outside of its specified design limits will inevitably lead to the malfunction of the battery. Apart from the trouble, the cost of replacing the battery can be restrictive. This is particularly true for high voltage and high power automotive batteries, which must operate in hostile environments and which at the same time, dominated to damage by the user.
  • Charge effect.?This is an essential characteristic of BMS. More batteries are destroyed by improper charging than by any other reason.
  • Demand Management?While not directly related to the battery's operation, demand management leads to the application of the battery. Its purpose is to minimize the current consumption of the battery by designing power-saving procedures into the applications circuits and, therefore, prolonging the time between batteries charges.
  • SOC Determination?Many applications need a knowledge of the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery or the different cells in the battery chain. This may only be for providing the user with an indication of the capacity left in the battery, or it could be required in a control circuit to ensure optimum control of the charging process.
  • SOH Determination?the State of Health (SOH) is a compute of a battery's capability to offer its specified output. This is important to access the readiness of emergency power equipment and is a sign of whether maintenance actions are needed.
  • Cell Balancing?In multi-cell battery chains, little differences between cells due to production tolerances or working conditions tend to be magnified with each charge/discharge cycle. Weaker cells become emphasized during charging, causing them to become even weaker until they eventually fail to produce the battery's early failure. Cell balancing is a way of paying for more fragile cells by equalizing the charge on all the cells in the chain and thus increasing battery life.
  • History - (Log Book Function)?Monitoring and storing the battery's history is another potential purpose of the BMS. This is needed to estimate the State of Health of the battery, but also to determine whether it has been subject to abuse. Parameters such as several cycles, maximum and minimum voltages, and temperatures and maximum charging and discharging currents can be recorded for subsequent evaluation. This can be an essential tool in evaluating warranty claims.
  • Authentication and Identification?The BMS allows the opportunity to record data about the cell, such as the manufacturer's type specification and the cell chemistry, which can help automatic experiment and the batch or serial number and the date of manufacture, which allows traceability in case of cell malfunctions.

How do you protect the battery management system?

Battery Management System protection is crucial for both safety and security. Having reliable protection during the system is essential. The sensing lines at each battery have the potential for a short circuit in any cell. The cell monitor check or direct line must also be fused to avoid overcurrent risk. Protection areas for Battery Management System include:-

  • ICs utilized in cell monitoring to protect against overvoltage.
  • Transmission lines between units to protect against ESD.
  • Battery IC security in case of voltage transients.
  • Microcontrollers?
  • Final protection barrier – High-voltage and high-current fuse in series with the main switch
  • Other devices (e.g., inverters, DC/DC converters – high-voltage)

That’s everything you should know about the battery management system!

 

 

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