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What Does Battery Mean-Definition,Components And Materials
Generally, batteries are known as a collection of one or more cells attached, so that the flow of current can be made possible through them.
Technically, anything that provides a temporary and portable energy source is known as a battery—a battery function by creating a potential difference between its two ends. One has the maximum electrical energy, which is the anode, and the other end has zero potential difference that is the cathode. Electrical energy flows from the higher potential difference area to the lower potential difference area. When connected with an electrical device, a battery makes the electrons flow through that device, giving it power and back to the battery, thus completing the cycle. This phenomenon is called continuous direction.
Components of a battery
A battery consists of three main components.
The anode is the negative terminal of the battery. Another popular name for the anode is the Reducing electrode. What the anode does is it releases electrons from its terminal, which then flows through the external circuit towards the cathode. The anode terminal oxidizes the electrochemical reaction when it releases an electron.
The cathode is the positive terminal of the battery. The cathode terminal is also called the oxidizing electrode. The cathode acquires electrons that are flowing through the external circuit. When the cathode gains an electron, reduction takes place in the electrochemical reaction.
The electrolyte is the third and probably the most essential part of a battery. The electrolyte is the primary medium that provides a medium to transport the ions within the battery. Without an electrolyte, the anode and the cathode terminal would not be able to connect. Thus the reaction would not take place at all. The electrolyte are mostly considered to be liquids such as water with some added salts that carry the ions. It may be noted that the small conventional batteries such as AAA contain a solid electrolyte.
The function of the components inside a battery
The battery works due to the chemical present in between the terminals known as the electrolyte. The electrolyte creates a chemical reaction in collaboration with the anode and cathode within the battery. As s result, there is a surplus amount of electrons deposited at the anode. Surplus deposit of electron on the anode creates a potential difference. To neutralize the charge inside a battery, the anode needs to release the surplus amount of electrons, which cannot be done in the electrolyte. The only way to do it is through a conducting wire that is connected to the cathode.
Over time, the chemical reaction taking place inside a battery becomes weak and ultimately stops. As a result, there are no surplus electrons on the anode, the potential difference becomes zero, and the battery does not conduct electrons anymore. This is the stage when we say that the battery is dead.
Rechargeable batteries are the same as regular batteries, with one slight difference. In a traditional battery, the above-explained chemical reaction is irreversible. The chemical reaction happens in only one direction. In contrast, if an external source is provided in a rechargeable battery, the chemical reaction can be reversed, resulting in the reverse electron flow. When the external power is removed, the battery is once again able to conduct electricity independently.
Materials used in the making of batteries