The UPS allows the safe way for computers and connected equipment to shut down in an orderly manner. It depends on the size and design of the UPS to determine how long that power supply will be. There are generally four types of UPS; it is explained below:
Standby has the most basic level topology of UPS. Standby UPS restores the battery backup power in the event during problems such as blackout, voltage sag or voltage surge. Whenever the incoming utility problem faces common problems like a blackout, voltage sag or voltage surge, the UPS switches to DC battery supply and inverters to AC power supply to run the connected equipment. Generally, this type of UPS is designed for consumer electronics, entry-level computers, POS systems, security systems and other basic levels of electronics.
This type of technology allows correcting minor power fluctuations without switching to battery. This type of UPS has an autotransformer that regulates low voltage and over voltage without switching over to battery. So it is typically used for PCs, gaming systems, network equipment, entry-to-mid range server.
It provides a consistent, clean and near-perfect supply of the power regardless of the incoming power. This UPS works on a technology that it converts incoming AC power to DC, and then while providing backup, it supplies back in AC. It has zero transfer time. It is used for critical IT equipment, data center installations, high-level servers, storage applications and advanced network equipment. So it protects the things from damage caused by power blackout, voltage sag, over-voltage, voltage spike, harmonic distortion, etc.
How to calculate your UPS Back-up Time?
This is a general question that arises in people's minds, and they ask it to battery dealers. Below is the way the battery shop owner can tell you the simple formula to calculate the backup time of the UPS, also generally known as battery inverter?
Back up Time of Inverter battery = Battery Volt x Battery AH rating / Total watts on Load.
The calculation shows the approximate value because there will be some energy loss when you are converting 12 battery power to 220 volts using an inverter. For example, we cannot figure out the exact power consumption of a ceiling fan as the power consumption will be low when the fan runs at a low speed.
How do you use the UPS backup time calculator properly?
Battery backup depends primarily on three factors, namely - power consumption, battery voltage and battery capacity.
Most batteries have a nominal voltage of 12 volts and depending upon your power requirement and the Load on the inverter, a battery would provide backup accordingly. Now, to calculate what capacity of battery one would require under the given circumstances, there is a rule of thumb -
(Power consumption in watts) x (Battery backup in hours) / (Voltage of the battery)
For example, we would consider the power consumption of 500W that one needs to run on inverter power.
(500 x 4) / 12 = 166.67 Ah
So, for 500W of power consumption to be powered for 4 hours on the inverter, one would require a 180Ah battery.
Power requirements of the appliances to be run on inverter power
The Volt-Ampere(VA) rating of an inverter is the apparent power it can supply to power the appliances at any given point of time. It is calculated by summing the individual power ratings of all the appliances one wishes to run on inverter power. The sum obtained is then divided by the power factor because 100% efficiency is not attainable, and 15–20% efficiency is lost as heat. Generally, the power factor is between?0.7 to 0.8.
For example, suppose one wish to run the following appliances on inverter power:-
3 ceiling fans = 75W x 3 = 225W
1 Refrigerator = 175W
4 Fluorescent Tubes = 50W x 4 =200W
Total power consumption = 225W + 175W + 200W = 600W
Now, 600W is the power rating of all the appliances one would want to run on inverter power. Dividing 600 by power factor, i.e. 0.8 would yield the VA rating one should purchase an inverter with, i.e. 600 / 0.8 = 750 VA.
Therefore, for the above-stated energy requirement, a 900 VA inverter would be an appropriate choice.
What is the performance of the USP backup time calculator?
Here is a quick guide on calculating the inverter and battery backup time.
There are different capacities of inverters like 200VA, 250VA, 350VA, 400VA, 450VA, 500VA, 625VA, 1200VA, etc. The Load of the inverter should be chosen based on how many watts of appliances you power at a time.
- How to convert from VA to Watts?
- Volts x Ampere = VA (Volt Ampere)
- Volts x Ampere x Power Factor = kW (Watts)
- Power Factor = 0.8 (which is the max. power factor of the home standard)
- If you want to run 200W of appliances then,
- 200 / 0.8 = 250VA
- So, it would be best if you preferred the inverter of 250VA or more. 300VA inverter will be the best choice.
Similarly, the battery is an integral part of the inverter. The performance of the inverter depends on the connected battery and vice-versa.
The battery backup time in hours can be calculated using the following formula:
Backup Time = Battery AH x 12V x N x Efficiency of Battery / Load in Watts
- Battery AH = Ampere Hour Capacity of Battery
- N = Number of 12 V Batteries needed
- The efficiency of battery = Generally, it is 0.8, which is the max. the power factor of home standard
Note: The inverter capacity is not used in backup time calculation.
Suppose I have a 60A battery. My Load is 150W. I have a single 12V battery. Generally, in-home standard, only a single 12V battery is used.
Backup Time = ( 60 x 12 x 1 x 0.8 / 150 ) hours= 3.84 hours
Hence, an ups system serves multiple purposes:
- Protect against power interruptions
- Provide adequate power during short-term interruptions and “ride-through” time to convert to backup supply
- Refine the quality of the power as it reaches your building, office and equipment
Include a backup source for long-term outages, such as generators
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