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The charging and discharging process of Li-ion battery
Li-ion battery is a kind of battery that relies on lithium ions internally and electrons to move between positive and negative electrodes externally. The positive electrode of a Li-ion battery is usually made of a lithium-containing compound (such as a lithium transition metal oxide) coated on a metal aluminum foil, while the negative electrode is usually made of graphite coated on a metal copper foil. Li-ion battery has a relatively high energy density and can be recycled.
Li-ion battery usually consists of positive electrode, negative electrode, separator, electrolyte and outer packaging.
If the Li-ion battery is compared to a living body, the positive and negative electrodes are bones and muscles, the diaphragm is the muscles and veins, the outer packaging of the battery is like the skin, and the electrolyte is the blood; the battery management system (BMS) plays the role of the brain. role, to ensure the normal operation of the life of the Li-ion battery. The charging process can be imagined as the life body is eating, and discharging is working.
Specifically, when we charge the battery, lithium ions leave the positive electrode, swim to the negative electrode in the ocean of electrolyte, and electrons flow from the external circuit through the wire to the negative electrode; lithium ions are inserted into the layered structure of the graphite material of the negative electrode, receive electrons and and graphite atoms to form lithium-carbon complexes. The Li-ion battery is fully charged when the lithium ions are all moved from the positive electrode to the negative electrode.
When we use Li-ion battery, the battery is in a state of discharge, the lithium-carbon composite is oxidized and releases electrons, the lithium of the negative electrode will become lithium ions and move to the positive electrode in the electrolyte, and the electrons of the external circuit will generate electricity to meet the needs of the user. electricity demand.