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Storing Lithium Batteries – Charging State, Safety, and Weather

Storing Lithium Batteries – Charging State, Safety, and Weather

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  This current era of technology has put forward an essential demand for power and energy. This demand allows mankind to use infinite resources that run their daily lives from scratch. One such basic unit that serves the purpose of supplying power/energy to these resources is a battery. The world now sees several kinds of batteries all serving different purposes. Lithium-ion batteries, however, are undoubtedly one of the most leading categories of batteries. They are rechargeable (secondary type) batteries that have found their way into almost all electronic devices may they be related to any field of life.

  What makes lithium-ion batteries one of the leaders of batteries is their capacity to provide stable high-density current outputs and their ability to store high energy amounts. However, these batteries require special care and attention for their effective usage and the prevention of any unprecedented harm.

  Charging Lithium-ion batteries the right way is responsible for the battery's optimum performance and prolonged operation life. To manage the charging mechanism of Li-ion batteries, their charging is usually accompanied by a battery management system.?

  Storing Lithium Batteries Fully Charged

  Every battery has its way of storage that should be taken care of to achieve harmless storage that is fruitful in the future. State of charge is one of the most important factors that should be considered while storing a battery for an indefinite amount of time. A lead-acid battery requires it to be stored at a full level of charge. Whereas, batteries like Lithium-ion and Nickel are required to be stored at a charge level of 40% of their original capacity.

  It is harmful to store a lithium battery in a fully charged state because lithium-ion batteries have chemical reactions going on inside their body that give of hydrogen gas as a by-product. If the batteries are left fully charged with the absence of any discharging load, the hydrogen gas produced by the chemical reactions increases inside the casing of the battery and produces high pressures. The pressures can cause the battery to undergo leakage problems or ruptures. These problems, even if they do not inflict retiring harm to the battery, can cause an unstable effect on the battery’s performance.

  In some cases, the hydrogen gas fills inside the battery casing and its increased pressures cause the battery to heat up and catch fire or even explode in some cases. Therefore, the safest practice is to store the lithium battery cells with a charge capacity of 30 to 50 percent to leave any margin of error. Also, the cells can be stored after complete discharge but their voltage should not drop below 2 volts.

  

  

  Storing Lithium Batteries Safely

  Lithium batteries can have longer shelf lives if they are stored in the right way. There are various parameters that should be taken care of to ensure the harmless storage of lithium batteries. The following maintenance and handling precautions will help you to store your lithium batteries today for hassle-free use tomorrow while taking care of all the necessary prescribed precautions:

  1.Always keep a check on the status of your lithium battery while charging it.

  2.Make sure that the place of storage has a controlled temperature environment naturally or technically to ensure prevention from harm.

  3.Take observations of a complete cycle of the lithium battery from a state of fully charged to discharged.

  4.Always check your batteries for any pre-fault conditions before storing them to avoid any danger while they are in storage away from human vigilance.

  5.Keep the lithium batteries away from vibrating conditions because this can cause damage to the battery internals, possibly resulting in faulty operations.

  6.Keep the lithium batteries away from extremely high or low temperatures. Store them in places where you are assured that irregular temperature changes are unlikely to occur.

  7.If the batteries are suffering from leakage or rupture avoid storing them as this can cause a serious threat to the batteries putting them at risk of fire.

  8.If someone comes in contact with the fluid leaking out of the battery, do not touch the part in contact with any other part of the body especially the eyes and mouth. Wash the part in contact with the fluid immediately.

  Storing lithium-ion batteries in the Cold

  Lithium-ion batteries require special care in the winters. The reason for this required attentiveness is due to the increased internal resistance and reduced battery capacity. A lithium battery that stores 100 percent charge at a temperature of 80 degrees Fahrenheit will only be able to store 50 percent of the charge at a temperature of 0 degrees Fahrenheit.

  In other words, cold temperatures will reduce the life-span and the reliability of a lithium-ion battery. To make sure that your battery makes it through the winters, it is important to store it with the necessary precautions.

  1.Clean Your Battery

  Clean your battery while it is in use and especially when you plan to store it. Every person who owns a lithium battery for some reason should perform a routine clean-up of the battery terminals using baking soda and water. Dirt and corrosion cause the battery to discharge faster which is dangerous for winters.

  2.Warm it Up Before Using

  Those who plan to use their lithium batteries in the winters should warm up their battery before putting the device to use. If your battery is being used in the car, wait for the battery to warm up after starting the engine. Similarly, if it is inside a laptop, wait until the laptop is powered up so that the battery can reach its full potential after warming up.

  3.Store Under Adequate Temperatures

  Make sure that you are storing your batteries under the allowable temperature range. The range of allowed temperature for lithium-ion batteries starts from 32 degrees Fahrenheit and goes all the way up to a maximum limit of 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

  4.Maintain the State of Charge

  When storing your lithium battery for a longer period in winters, make sure that it is not completely charged. Also, keep a check of the charge level of the battery that it is above 40 percent and well below 80 percent because any way above or under this limit the battery can suffer harmful consequences.

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