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Nickel Hydrogen Batteries-Charging,Price and Explosion
A nickel Hydrogen battery ( NiH2 or Ni-H2) is a battery-powered electrochemical force source.
This battery is based on nickel and hydrogen. The nickel-hydrogen battery was patented by Alexander Illich Klosd, and Boris lose Levich Tsenter in the United States of America. The main benefit of this battery is it is maintenance-free. Nickel Hydrogen batteries use 26% potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an electrolyte.
In this battery, positive electrode is made up of a dry sintered porous nickel plaque containing nickel hydroxide. The negative hydrogen terminal uses a Teflon fortified platinum dark impetus at a stacking of 7 mg/cm2, and the separator is weave zirconia material. The critical characteristic of the nickel-hydrogen battery is its long life. It contrasts from a nickel-metal hydride battery by the usage of vaporous hydrogen set aside in a packed cell at up to 1200 psi (82.7 bar) pressure.
It is also as abuse tolerant as NiFe batteries. Nickel hydrogen batteries have shown an assistance life of 15 years or more at 80% profundity of release. Its energy density is 75 Wh/kg. At the same time, the energy density is only around one-third of that of a lithium battery. The cell handles in excess of 20,000 accuse patterns of 85% energy productivity and 100% faradaic proficiency..
The development of nickel-hydrogen batteries was started by COMSAT laboratories in 1970. After the initial confirmation of the viability of the nickel-hydrogen battery, INTELSAT funded COMSAT laboratories to develop cells furthermore. They created a 50 A-h cell in 1975, which leads to the development of a 35 A-h nickel-hydrogen cell for use on the United States Navy's Navigation Technology Satellite spacecraft.
It is lightweight compared to a nickel-iron battery and has high gravimetric density but low volumetric energy density due to gaseous hydrogen. It is costly, and because of this reason, it has limited applications.
Since the hydrogen remains in the gaseous phase within the cell when the cell is charged, the gas has to withstand very high pressures of up to about seven multiply by ten raised to the power of 6 pascals (70 bar). And due to this, nickel-hydrogen batteries must be hermetically sealed.
NiH2 batteries have properties that make them feasible with the energy accumulating of electrical energy in satellites and space tests. For instance, the ISS, Mercury Messenger, Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor are outfitted with nickel-hydrogen batteries.
Charging of Nickel-hydrogen Batteries
It is interesting to note that the charging efficiency of nickel-based batteries of all forms is close to 100% up to about 70% of the total charge. This means that at first, there is a slight temperature rise, but later as the charge level rises, the efficiency drops and heat is generated, raining the temperature of the cell. Nickel hydrogen batteries can be deep discharged and accept diverse charge methods.
Their recharging characteristics are generally similar to those of sealed Nickel-cadmium batteries. They can be easily charged by the I charge method. During the first step, nickel-hydrogen batteries can accept from 60 to 80% charge within 15 minutes. At that point after the primary edge voltage is reached, the current is decreased and charging proceeds until the following voltage limit. These batteries have a high self-discharging rate.
Price of Nickel-hydrogen Batteries
Rechargeable batteries offer great chances to target low cost, high capacity and highly reliable systems for large scale energy storage. In nickel-hydrogen batteries, a nickel hydroxide cathode and low-cost electrocatalyst for the anode is used.
But still, these batteries are expensive and is used in limited applications. The estimated cost of the nickel-hydrogen battery is based on active materials reaches as low as approximate $83 per kilowatt-hour, demonstrating attractive characteristics for large scale energy storage. The reason why it has limited applications is because of its high cost; due to this, it is not affordable for everyone to use in any experiments.
It was used only in extensive scale experiments with a considerable budget, for example, telescopes and satellites. This battery is beneficial, but it has a drawback of its price, which limits its applications.
The Explosion of Nickel-hydrogen Batteries
Inadequate work procedures in which a probable cause is the ignition of accumulated hydrogen gas by a spark generated during the replacement work and inadequate ventilation of the battery area; leads the nickel-hydrogen battery to explode.
Nickel hydrogen batteries have a low volumetric energy density due to gaseous hydrogen. The hydrogen in these batteries is in gaseous form. That's why these batteries have a very high-pressure rate of approximately 70 bars.
That is why they should be kept sealed. Offices lodging battery charging frameworks need to guarantee the ventilation frameworks are operational and conveying sufficient outside air to appropriately ventilate the fenced in area.
Administrators should know about safe practices and appropriate battery charging guidelines for the nickel-hydrogen batteries they work on. This data should be dispersed to the entirety of the professionals dealing with the batteries and battery charging frameworks.
In 1990, the Hubble telescope dispatched as the primary LEO satellite utilizing nickel-hydrogen batteries, after which nickel-hydrogen batteries were utilized for various LEO missions.
In the amidst of 1980s, the international space station power system was designed with the largest ever series-connected nickel-hydrogen battery, "Orbital Replacement units", to provide energy storage during the LEO eclipse duration. Its first set was launched in 2000.
The ISS Ni-H2 batteries have a life of 6.5 years. The Nickel hydrogen battery technology has been used extensively for at least 30 years. The higher explicit energy contrasted and nickel-cadmium batteries was the primary factor that prompted the conventional utilization of Nickel hydrogen batteries installed all correspondence satellites since the 1990s.
Its only and significant disadvantage is its unaffordable price due to the use of high-cost platinum catalyst. Ni-H2 battery's almost all applications are in the aerospace field.
Today, however, owing to the expected advantages of lithium-ion batteries for space applications, the disappearance of Nih2 technology is expected in the near future. Most satellite producers have effectively adjusted their satellite force frameworks to suit lithium-particle batteries.