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Lithium-Ion Battery Charging-Equations, Theory And Best Practices
Lithium-ion batteries provide excellent performance. To get the best of them, you need to charge them properly. If the lithium-ion battery is not charging correctly, the battery operation will be damaged and destroyed - so be careful.
Proper charging of Li-ion batteries allows for better performance and longer working life. As a result, Li-ion battery charging is usually obtained in conjunction with the battery management system. It controls the charge level, discharge, and the rate at which these occur.
What Are The Lithium-Ion Battery Charging And Discharging Equations?
The dynamic performance of the battery in-charge and discharge is the speed at which the current can be stored and extracted. When charging and discharging, the terminal voltage rises and falls. The charge and discharge dynamics of batteries can be defined as the current inputs emitted at a constant charge. The battery is charged at low, medium and high rates. The high-rate discharge case indicates that the voltage is decreasing rapidly, so only a fraction of the capacity at high discharge rate can be used.
In the positive electrode, during charge, the active material is oxidized:
During charge in the negative electrode, the active material is reduced, and lithium ions move from the positive electrode and through the separator with the help of electrolyte to the negative electrode:
As Lithium-ion batteries are subjected to multiple cycles, they lose capacity due to the physical and chemical degradation of the positive and negative electrodes and the electrolyte.
When the battery is charged, an oxidation reaction occurs in the cathode—it means that some of the negatively charged electrons are lost. An equal number of positively charged intercalated lithium ions are dissolved in the electrolyte solution to maintain the charge in the cathode. These travel to the anode, where they are connected in graphite. Electrons are deposited into the graphite anode to connect the lithium-ion.
During the discharge, lithium ions interconnect from the anode and return to the cathode via the electrolyte. It releases electrons that are attached to the anode, which flows through the external wire, which gives us the electric current we used to operate. The external wire connection allows the reaction to proceed, while the electrons are free to travel, while the positively charged lithium ions also balance the motion of their negative charge.
Do You Hear Of Lithium-Ion Battery Charging Theory?
As in the case of lead-acid, Li-ion does not need to be fully charged, and doing so is undesirable. Of course, it is better not to charge it, because high voltages can cause the battery to drain. Choose a lower voltage range or eliminate saturation charge, increasing battery life, but it also reduces runtime. As the consumer market promotes maximum runtime, these chargers go to maximum efficiency over extended service life.