Battery research has enabled us to experience some revolutionary changes in battery chemistry. And a Lithium-ion battery is one of such exemplary changes that have led battery technology to the future. Hence, people want to know as much as possible about Lithium battery, its chargers, and other modules as well. So, today, we will talk about the lithium battery charging board and its working. Alongside this, we will also discuss the methods of charging a lithium battery properly. Let's begin.
What Is Lithium Battery Charging Board?
As rechargeable batteries play an essential role in our everyday life, we need a charger as well. And if you have enough knowledge, you can even create one.
A lithium battery charging board is a module that is used for charging lithium batteries. The term board is coined because the charging circuit is assembled on a board made of wood or some insulating material for protection. The charger breakout board is mostly based on the TP4056 circuit. It uses a micro USB for connection between the breakout board and the computer/USB wall adapter. TP4056 is a constant voltage/current linear charger for single-cell lithium-ion batteries.
Mainly, it is the SOP package along with the low external component that makes the TP4056 circuit suitable for portable applications. This charging board comes in two variants, the first one has a protection circuit, and the other one is without protection. It can be used or cellular telephones, PDAs, GPS, digital cameras, portable devices, USB chargers, etc.
The charging module with protection keeps the battery safe from over and undercharging. The breakout board for creating a lithium battery charger is available in the market. So, if you want to make a charger, then you can get them online and offline easily. We recommend using the board with protection circuitry. Now, let's get a more in-depth insight into how the circuit works.
How Does Lithium Battery Charging Board Work?
At first, you should know that the breakout board used for batteries most often contains battery protection circuitry. And the protection is provided using the DW01A IC and FS8205A IC. The DW01A is a general-purpose IC, whereas FS820A is a Dual N-Channel Enhancement Mode Power MOSFET integrated circuit. So, the protection circuit has a total of 3 IC, including TP4056, DW01A, and FS8205A.
On the board, the DW01A chip is soldered with the TP4056 IC so that it can never be connected in the wrong way. The various components of a lithium battery charging module include:
· Power terminals, i.e., positive and negative
· Current Resistor
· Power Indicator
· Battery output
The TP4056 charging module comes with pre-determined specifications. It enlists:
· 5V input voltage
· 1000mA maximum charging current
· 4.2 V +/-1% charge cut off voltage
· 2.5 V battery overcharge protection voltage
· A battery over-current protection current
· Micro USB or 5V power terminals as an input interface
The battery charging board is connected to a 100 nF capacitor and a voltage regulator. If you have a 5v wall adapter, then you can skip these connections entirely. The input terminals of the TP4056 will be connected with the switch through the capacitors. And the output terminals will be connected to the charging dock. Now, you need to put the cell into the charger and switch it on. The cell will charge as it does from usual lithium battery chargers.
How Do You Charge A Lithium Battery Properly?
Now, the question arises how to charge the lithium batteries safely and carefully. As all batteries have different needs in terms of depth of discharge, loading, exposure to temperature, etc. we need to account for all possible factors. The mechanisms that must be followed while charging the batteries include:
· Charge Current value limit should not extend 0.8 C maximum.
· Charge temperature must be in the range of 0 to 45°C.
· Charge over-voltage protection must be used to prevent the batteries from overcharging.
· Reverse polarity protection makes sure that the battery is not charged in the wrong direction that could cause severe damage to the battery chemistry and even lead to an explosion.
All these factors will play a crucial role in the charging process. Now, let's get into the process.
When the battery is charging, the positively charged ions move from cathode to anode through the electrolyte. During this action, the electron flow in the circuit occurs that provides external current to operate the devices. Over the years, the scientists have tweaked and enhanced the formula so that the lithium batteries could last longer, charge fast, and all the while work more efficiently.
As lithium batteries don't like extreme charging conditions, whenever you charge the batteries, even with the made-up charger, ensure that you follow some basic guidelines.
· Avoid trickle charging as much as possible. A high level of charge puts a high level of stress on the batteries.
· Avoid charging the battery if the percentage is above 80% and plug in the charger if the percentage is lower than 30%.
· You don't need to condition new batteries as they are already at peak capacity.
· Keep the temperature lower during charging to make the process smooth. Charging slowly means that the life expectancy of the battery also increases.
· Every couple of months, allow the battery to discharge entirely as it recalibrates the capacity meter.
· Keep in mind that it is the load cycle that affects battery life, not the number of charge cycles. The closer the battery gets to 100% charge, the slower it charges. The charger with the protection circuit automatically reduces the current on the battery cells to make sure they are not damaged.
As much as possible, keep the charger handy and use the original charger to charge lithium batteries. You can create one using the lithium battery charging board for personal purposes. However, to be on the safe side, always check the charger specifications before you plug in the battery for charging.
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