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Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction, Equation, Animation and Explanation
One of the most interesting things about lead-acid batteries is the reaction that takes place inside them. This reaction includes a lot of things and knowing about them is very interesting. So, while a lot of people have these batteries installed in their vehicles and power backup systems why not explore their actual working.
So, here we will be discussing the real working mechanism of these batteries with the help of the reaction equation and animation.
Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction Equation
The first thing that you need to know about the working of these batteries is the chemical reaction equation. The chemical reaction happens inside the battery because of the two active materials. One of these active materials is the lead peroxide that we used for forming the positive active material of the battery. These are also called battery plates.
On the other hand, the other active material is the electrolyte which is 31% sulfuric acid. Another thing to note is that the process of the chemical reaction is different for the charging and discharging process. So, here we will be discussing both of these processes and their equations as well.
Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction Equation for the Charging Process
During the charging process, the terminals of the battery are connected to the supply that is coming from the charger. So, in this case, the battery chemical reaction equation is:
PbSO4 + 2H2O + 2H = PbSO4 + 2H2SO4
In this equation of the chemical reaction, the positive hydrogen ions are moving towards the cathode. This created a potential difference between the different terminals of the battery which causes the charging.
Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction Equation for the Discharging Process
When we talk about the discharging process the potential difference is there and the load makes this difference lower. In this case, the equation of chemical reaction happening inside the battery is as follows.
PbO2 + H2SO4 + 2H = PbSO4 + 2H2O
In this case, the anodes are getting the electrons when they pass through the load coming from the cathode. In this way, the chemical reaction happens on the anode where the hydrogen atom is formed.
Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction Animation
Comprehending the chemical reaction with the help of the equation can be somewhat tricky for some people. SO, the best way to know how things happen inside the battery is to learn with the animation. So, here we will discuss exactly what happens inside the battery.
Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction Animation for the Charging Process
The charging process is the process where the battery is connected to the supply. In this case, the electrons are being moved from the anode to the cathode. When the charger is connected to the battery terminals, the flow of current is in the opposite direction.
This causes the electrical energy to do the chemical reaction and the chemicals inside the battery. This chemical reaction makes the electrons move from the positive terminal of the battery to the negative one. As the process continues the negative terminal has an abundance of electrons and the battery is fully charged.
Lead-acid Battery Chemical Reaction Animation for the Discharging Process
The discharging process starts when the battery is fully charged. This is the point where the electrons are located on the negative terminal of the battery and they are ready to move to the positive terminal of the battery.
As soon as the load is connected to the battery the circuit is complete and the chemical reaction starts. The electrons start to flow from the negative terminal of the battery with the help of the chemical reaction and they are collecting on the positive terminal of the battery.
This process continues for as long as the chemical reaction supports the movement of electrons and there is an imbalance in the equation. As soon as the chemical reaction stops the flow of electrons also stops and the battery is fully discharged at this point.
What chemical reaction takes place in a battery?
When we talk about the batteries converting the chemical energy into electrical energy, this is happening because of some chemical reaction. This chemical reaction is called the process of electrolysis as here the change in electrons at one part causes an effect on the other. As a result of this change, the flow of electrons occurs, and electricity is produced.
However, this is not the only case. The process of electrolysis can also be divided into further parts. It is because different reactions are happening at different parts of the battery. These are the oxidation and reduction processes and here we will be discussing them.
The Process of Oxidation Taking Place in a Battery
The process of oxidation happens when something inside the battery loses one or more electrons. When we are charging the battery the positive terminal of the battery loses electrons, so the process of oxidation occurs on the positive terminal during charging. On the other hand, when the battery is discharging the oxidation occurs on the negative terminal as it is the one losing electrons.
The Process of Reduction Taking Place in a Battery
The reduction process is the addition of electrons and this is the exact opposite of the oxidation process. So, we can say that the reduction process is taking place on the positive terminal when the battery is being discharged. It is because here the electrons are moving from the positive terminal towards the negative terminal.
Likewise, reduction happens on the negative terminal when we are charging the battery as the electrons are moving towards the negative terminal.
Although most people do not know how the batteries produce electricity, it is the reaction happening inside the battery. The reaction converts the chemical energy into electrical energy with the help of a chemical reaction happening inside the battery’s active materials. To make understanding the process easier for you here we were discussing how the process happens, its animation, and its equation as well.