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How to Make a Li-Ion Battery Charger?
Batteries are a critical component of a product that can't operate without them. They can be rechargeable or use and throw batteries. The rechargeable type is very expensive because you need the cell and its charger; however, they are economical in the long run.
There are different combinations of electrodes and electrolytes in the rechargeable battery. The most common one is the lithium-ion (Li-ion). You can make a li-ion battery charge if you have a project or a device that frequently use these cells instead of buying it.
Further, when you forget or lose your charger, you don't have to panic about having a dead phone the entire day. There are other means of charging the battery of your phone without using a charger.
Continue reading the article for more information.
How Do You Charge A Li-Ion Battery Without A Charger?
You may lose your charger when on vacation, forget it at home, or it suddenly stop functioning. Don’t get stranded, for there are alternatives to charging your lithium-ion battery without its charger. They include;
Solar Energy Chargers: You can use solar energy to charge your mobile devices. Crank charger or wind turbine charger are the standard options in the market. The charger has a suction cup that you fix on the window of the jetliners or car.
The battery has to be inside the gadget like a phone, or tablet and they are charged using a USB port. The charger is useful when traveling or when you're not in a hurry to use your device. It will charge your phone through solar energy, and it’s an excellent way of reducing your electricity bill.
Cup Chargers: It’s a clip charger that is portable, adjustable to fit the model of the battery. You have to remove the battery from your device and mount it battery on the platform of the cup charger.
USB Chargers: If you lose your charger and you have a desktop or laptop, use a USB to charge it. Simply connect the USB to your phone and plug it to the computer. Your phone will charge as you work on your computer. USB chargers are faster when compared with solar energy chargers and cup chargers.
You can also charge a lithium-ion battery using any appliance or gadget with a USB port. However, the battery should be inside your mobile phone or device. Turn on the phone to confirm it’s charging and carry it anywhere and anytime.
How Do You Make A Li-Ion Battery Charger?
You can make a homemade charger that has no temperature regulation. For that reason, you need a lower input current.
You can make a simple, safe charger circuit with a trimmer, a single MOSFET, and a 470-ohm ? resistor. It would be best if you had the following things before connecting the output.
1.The homemade design has no temperature regulation; thus, you must restrict the input current to a level that doesn't increase heating of the cell.
2.The trimmer or preset should be adjusted to attain 4.1V in all charging terminals when the cell should is connected. You can achieve this with a precise Zener diode and a 1K resistor.
A consistent current input of 0.5C is enough for its 50% of the value of the cell. You can add the current controller to the input source by upgrading the circuit with BJT current.
A li-ion cell is superior because it’s able to accept charge at an efficient rate. However, the battery has a negative side of being extremely sensitive to inputs condition that is unfavorable such as high current, high voltage as well as overcharging conditions. Thus, the cell can get warm, the cell fluid can leak or even explode when charged under harsh conditions.
Another option is to have a controller IC that uses LM338 and LM317. This setup uses the LM317 to generate the needed current and regulated voltage. The NPN transistors are the sensing function, and they are set in such a way that they can contact the charging cell.
Therefore, the IC 317 restricts when you apply power to the setup. Further, a 3.9V is generated when connected to the battery.
What do you need to Care for when you make a Li-Ion Battery Charger?
Li-Ion batteries are vulnerable, but they can be charged using ordinary circuits, particularly when the battery doesn't get warm, and you are not inconvenienced by the delay in charging of the cell.
Li-Ion batteries can be charged using high initial currents, unlike lead-acid batteries. That means you can use Ah rating or 1C rate. Nonetheless, you shouldn't use such an extreme rate for it introduces extremely high stressing conditions due to increased temperatures. For that reason, you should use the recommended value of 0.5C rate or 50 % of the Ah value of this cell.
Further, you should reduce charging current rate during tropical summer conditions since the 0.5C is still unfavorable as a result of the existing high ambient temperature.
Although the Li-ion batteries are friendly and have limited considerations when charging, these factors have to be strictly adhered to. That means you have to cut-off constant voltage, the full charger level, and continuous current input supply. You can set the charger to automatically cut off when the battery achieves the required charge level. On the other hand, you can cap the constant voltage input at 4. V if you can’t install the automatic cut-off.
It's possible to charge a Li-ion battery without your charger using the solar energy charger, cup chargers, and USB chargers. Lithium-ion batteries should always be charged under convenient temperatures.
You should cut off the supply once the battery is fully charged. It’s possible to monitor your battery automatically or manually, and this will keep your cells longer and charge them safely.
You can make a simple charger for your li-ion battery using a simple MOSFET, but the design doesn't have a temperature regulation. In this design, you can fine-tune the 4.1V with the Zener diode and 1 K resistor.