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How do you build a battery management system?

How do you build a battery management system?

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The ongoing battery technology formation has encouraged several newcomers to learn about building battery management systems. Today’s electronic gadgets are greener and have high mobility than ever before.

Battery advancement is fueling this progression in a huge variety of items from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, to portable power tools and wireless speakers. In recent years, battery efficiency in terms of power and its output according to the weight and size has improved dramatically.

You need to think about a car battery how bulky and heavy it is. Its prime cause is to start the car. With modern advancements, you can buy a lithium-ion battery to get more functionality. It is lightweight and a small item.

There are some aspects of lithium-ion batteries and battery management systems to consider. These batteries are used in certain conditions as well as battery management systems is necessary to ensure the safety of operation and monitor battery state.

How do you build a battery management system?

A battery management system is comprised of several functional blocks like a state machine, temperature monitors, real-time clock, cell voltage balance, cell voltage monitor, a fuel gauge monitor, and cutoff FETs. There are several kinds of battery management ICS available. The functional blocks grouping is different from the simple analog front-end that delivers monitoring and balancing. It needs an extremely integrated solution that can work autonomously as well as a microcontroller to standalone.?

Cutoff FETs and FET Driver

The FET driver block is accountable for the isolation of the battery pack between charger and load as well as connection. It is predicted on battery cell voltage measurements, real-time detection circuitry, and current measurements.?

Current Measurements / Fuel Management

The fuel gauge bock controls exiting the battery pack and track of charge entering conditions. A charge is a product of time and current. These are many different techniques that are used to design this fuel gauge.?

Maximizing Battery Lifetime and Cell Voltage

Within a battery pack, monitoring the cell voltage is essential for overall health determination. All cells contain their own operating voltage window. This is important to ensure battery life and its proper function. If any device uses a lithium-ion battery, then the range of voltage between 2.5V and 4.2V. Battery operation more than the voltage range decreases the lifetime of the cell and it renders the cell useless.?

There are many other things that need to consider when designing a battery management system. The other important steps are here.

  • Increasing the ON Time of a battery Pack Per Charge
  • Multiple batteries in Parallel or series?
  • Battery protection
  • Monitoring temperature
  • Algorithm and state machine

Why do you need a battery management system?

Battery Management System is the brain behind battery packs. It manages the discharging, charging, and the output of the battery. This is important to deliver notification on the status of the battery pack. It protects the batteries from getting damaged and provides critical safeguards. Lithium-ion battery cell has 2 critical issues designs. If you overcharge these cells there is a big chance to damage it.

This is the reason it causes overheating and sometimes you may experience flame or explosion so it is vital to have a battery management system that provides overvoltage protection.?

Lithium-ion cells get damaged due to the discharging below a specific threshold. If a cell is discharged, then its capacity will be reduced permanently. A battery management system ensures that the battery charge will not go above and it will not discharge below its limits. It saves the battery from an explosion and is known as Lithium-ion protector.?

Safety:

Unlike lithium and lead-acid cobalt oxide batteries, these batteries are safe and efficient at over 60-degree centigrade temperature. But, higher storage temperature and operating can degrade it. The battery management system of Lithium battery uses embedded thermistors to monitor actively the temperature during operation. It disconnects batteries from the circuit.?

Lithium-ion batteries have prime differences from lead-acid batteries and it is important to balance the voltage during charging. Due to the small differences in operating or manufacturing conditions, each cell charges at a different rate. The battery management system in Lithium-ion batteries ensures the voltage control and flow of current balance in every cell. It ensures that the cell will be changed completely.

How does a battery management system work?

It is an electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery, battery pack, or cell-like controlling its environment, reporting secondary data, calculating secondary data, monitoring its state, operating inside and outside of the data. The battery management system works by monitoring the state of charge of the battery.

It is important to focus on the battery monitors because, in the BMs, the function of the battery monitor is highly significant. It means a shunt installed between the load and the negative post of the battery bank.?

Important Functions:

One of the important and major functions of the battery is to offer protection from getting damaged and it protects the cells, prolongs the battery life, and many more. Furthermore, the battery management system fulfills the needs of the application for which it is specified.?

BMs means different for different users. It is a simple monitoring framework keeping a check on the operational parameters during discharging and charging like ambient temperature, battery internal, currents, and voltages. The monitoring circuits will offer inputs to devise protection and it disconnects the battery. In this way, it saves the cells from an explosion.

An efficient BMS offers a memory chip that is programmed by the designer with complete specifications and information like temperature limits, maximum current limits, lower and upper voltage limits, mechanical outline code, cell capacity, cell chemistry, and manufacturing data such as serial number, date, and name.?

Conclusion

A battery management system can be designed utilizing a variety of several architectural techniques as well as functional blocks. Careful consideration of battery life and requirements goals will help you in considering related ICs. Functional blocks, right formation, and others to produce your battery management system. These things are good to optimize battery life.

 

 

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