Fax：(+86) 769 2229 0098
ADD：Tonghui Road, Dongcheng Science Park,
Greenway New Energy
ABOUT US PRODUCTS NEWS Scan QR code to follow
How do batteries produce electricity?
Our devices are losing track more and more. And to supply them with energy, there is an interesting alternative to conventional batteries: rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries. But do you know, how do they work? Let us know in the following guide.
How do rechargeable batteries produce electricity and why do they run out?
Recent lithium-ion battery technology provides an interesting solution for the storage of electrical energy, which is a complex technical process. Indeed, electricity is not directly storable but must be converted into another form of energy to be stored.
The principle of lithium-ion batteries is to store electricity in chemical elements that can accumulate energy and release it. The process must be reversible in order to be able to use the electricity later.
Lithium-ion batteries are based on the use of lithium in the ionic state. Lithium absorbs energy when the battery is supplied with electricity. When the battery is discharged, the lithium releases the stored electricity.
Other electricity storage solutions exist, but they have limited use. The WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant), the best-controlled storage solution at present, requires a significant drop in height and is currently limited to mountainous regions.
The major advantage of storage batteries is that they can better integrate the production of renewable energies into the electricity grid. Renewable energies are mostly intermittent and difficult to predict.
Batteries, therefore, make it possible to regulate the production of electricity, for example by storing electricity when production is too high. The electricity can be redistributed on the grid later.
This storage solution can thus contribute to the development of renewable energies.
Lithium batteries are already widely used in the construction of mobile electronic devices. The vast majority of phones, laptops, and cameras are said to be equipped with lithium batteries. Electric and hybrid cars are also equipped with lithium batteries.
Storage battery installation projects for renewable energy production are multiplying. Next fall, a Li-ion battery system is expected to be commissioned in Italy by French battery maker Saft. This 2 MW system will be able to store up to 1 MWh of electricity.
How do nonrechargeable batteries produce electricity?
A battery supplies current when it is in a closed circuit. Indeed, the positive and negative poles are connected through a "consumer" such as a light bulb.
When the circuit is closed, a reaction begins at the negative pole, which produces electrons, while a second reaction consumes electrons at the positive pole.
In the battery, there is a partition between the negative and positive poles, the "separator", which prevents electrons from moving between the negative and positive poles at the level of the battery itself and thus causing internal short circuits.
Only ions can pass through the separator. Therefore, the only way for electrons to move from the negative pole to the positive pole is through the circuit on the outside of the stack. When this happens, it is the voltage difference thus generated that makes the bulb work.
At the same time, different things are happening inside the stack itself. Electrons flowing "from the outside" to the positive poles undergo a reaction. This reaction causes ions to pass through an electrolyte (conductive liquid inside the battery) to the other conductor.
At the negative pole, another reaction occurs, causing the release of electrons in the external circuit. This process continues until the electrodes are saturated and unresponsive. At this time, the stack is empty.
To recharge a battery, the process is simply reversed. The electricity supplied is converted back into a chemical reaction. The charger removes negatively charged electrons from the positive pole and routes them to the negative pole. Thanks to the energy circulating in the battery, the active substances return to their initial state and the discharge process can start again.
In a battery, electrical energy (power) is generated by a chemical process. It is through a chemical reaction that electric current flows between two materials separated by the separator.
And for this reaction to take place, of course, other raw materials are needed, which are not found in conventional batteries. Rechargeable batteries indeed contain somewhat rarer materials, which require more treatment. The production process itself is often more expensive and slower. This is why rechargeable batteries cost more than their non-rechargeable counterparts.
What type of electricity do batteries produce?
A normal battery is one type of device that stores chemical energy and that converts it to electrical energy. It creates electrons from one particular material to another.
Different types of batteries have different chemical reactions. Some of these reactions are easily reversible, others are not. This is what determines whether a battery can be recharged. In many cases, recharging batteries that are not designed to be recharged can be dangerous.
For example, do not try to recharge alkaline batteries. The rapid production of gas in this type of cell can cause the cell to tear and burst. When the battery bursts, the liquid electrolyte is released.
While the electrolyte is still in a liquid state, use extreme caution and, if in the eyes or on the skin, rinse thoroughly with water. When to go for rechargeable batteries? It all depends on how you plan to use your batteries.
If they are intended for energy-efficient devices (calculator, clock, or remote control), it is recommended to use primary batteries. The same is true of devices that need to be on all the time, such as smoke detectors and flashlights. Unlike rechargeable batteries, primary batteries lose less energy over time (known as "self-discharge").
For devices that consume a lot of power over a shorter period or that you use often and intensively, it's best to go with rechargeable batteries. This is the case with game consoles, music players, your child's favorite toy, walkie-talkies, and digital cameras.
A quick tip from our battery expert: If you look at the packaging, NiMh rechargeable batteries always have a voltage of 1.2. However, when charged, these batteries reach 1.45 volts, almost the equivalent of the 1.5 volts of their primary counterparts. Rechargeable batteries are therefore ideal alternatives to most applications that require 1.5 volts.