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Best Battery Management System – Building and Choice

Best Battery Management System – Building and Choice

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A battery management system (BMS) is a real-time system that controls many functions that are crucial to the safe and proper functioning of an electrical energy storage system such as a battery pack. This device serves as both a regulator as well as the monitor/supervisor and performs its functions through a number of varied mechanisms. In this modern age of technology, we all rely on our electronic devices to survive the fast-paced society as well as keep up with the ever-changing world.

For the past couple of years, our move into a more technological advanced world has revolved around battery technology. This has seen batteries improve exponentially than ever before as they can now give out more power than anyone could’ve ever imagined.

To explain such progress in battery technology, look into the car you drive, for example, and focus on the battery powering it. In the previous decades, a normal car battery would be very heavy and chunky, weighing as much as a child’s bicycle. However, with time and technological improvements it is now possible to jump-start your car using a lithium-ion battery that weighs a third of your normal car battery.

The functions of a battery management system are quite common among the masses and are used in any device that requires rechargeable batteries to function. You are likely to interact with many electrical products that are equipped with a battery management system as compared on a daily basis than you know. The common devices that include a BMS in their systems are Smartphones and even laptops.

Functions of a BMS

A battery management system performs several functions some of which are simple while others tend to be more sophisticated. There are some factors that a BMS oversees and controls in a battery and they include:

  • Battery voltage
  • Charging rates
  • Main power voltage
  • Overall battery health

The functions of a BMS can be broken down into categories and they include:

Monitoring

A BMS serves as the supervisor within the cells of a battery by monitoring different aspects of the overall state of the battery through the following ways:

1.The temperature of the coolant intake; output of the coolant; temperature of each cell; average temperature of the whole battery.

2.The maximum and minimum cell voltage; total overall voltage of the battery; voltage of individual cells; voltage of periodic taps

3.State of power

4.Flow of the coolant

5.The state of charge

6.The current that moves in and through the entire battery

7.State of health of the battery

Communicating

The BMS has a controller at its heart that communicates with the hardware internally as well as externally. The hardware involves items such as mobile phones, laptops and many others. The communication allows the BMS to know if anything is wrong with the battery or if something might turn up. The process can be simple and might use different methods like:

  • Serial communication
  • Serial communication over a power-line
  • Wireless communication
  • CAN bus communications

Protecting

This is one of the primary roles of a BMS and can be done using several different mechanisms with the most common of them all is ensuring that the cell doesn’t operate outside of its safe operating zone. The BMS of a battery protects the cell against the following situations:

  • Extreme temperatures
  • High voltage during charging and discharging
  • Under-voltage
  • High pressure within the cells

The BMS uses the following ways to protect the battery from these conditions.

1.Using an internal switch that opens when th battery begins operating outside of the safe area.

2.Controls the environmental conditions using fans, heaters, liquid coolers or ACs.

3.Forces the item using the battery to terminate their use.

Computation

The Battery Management System of a battery can also calculate different essential values such as:

  • The total number of cycles undergone
  • The charge stored or delivered out of the cells
  • The maximum charge and discharge current
  • Total energy and operating time taken since the first time of use
  • Energy spent since the last charge cycle
  • The BMS is capable of performing the simplest of tasks such as measuring the voltage and ending the charging period when the required voltage is achieved. It can even shut down the flow of power within the cells.
  • What is the best battery management system?
  • The best BMS is one that can achieve al the expected functions of a BMS in battery technology. The best one should also be able to handle to power output of your battery and especially if it’s a high-drain battery. You should settle for a BMS with a high C rating because it would be able to accommodate large fluctuations of power within your battery. Also, the best BMS is ne that is specifically designed for the type of battery technology you’re using.
  • How do you build a battery management system?
  • Building a battery pack is quite a sophisticated process if you don’t follow the instructions accurately. People often suggest buying a ready BMS from eBay but at times, it could be malfunctioned hence others wouldn’t trust the source of second-handmade packs. You can however, but the starter/DIY kit online and using the right instructions from the manual, you can build your very own BMS.
  • How do you choose the best battery management system?
  • A battery is built out of a number of cells allowing it to operate in a certain voltage range. Every cell in the battery has a similar behavior to the other but not entirely copyright. Such a problem creates the need for a good BMS and you need to find the most suitable one for your battery. Choosing the right BMS can be a simple process provided you consider the following factors:
  • Battery type
  • There are different types of BMS and some are designed specifically for a certain type of battery. For example, lithium-ion batteries have different features as well as power requirements from lithium-polymer cells. Therefore, there are BMS designed to handles the functioning of a lithium-ion battery better than it would a lithium-polymer battery.
  • Power output
  • Consider the amount of power that your device requires and the amount that your battery is willing to offer. A good BMS should be able to handle the wide range of power drained from the battery by the device. You should match the rating f the BMS to that of the battery.
  • Final thoughts
  • A battery BMS is an important factor to consider for any battery pack because it lowers the risk of complications when using the battery. Also, it ensures that you are kept safe while getting the most out of your battery pack.

 

 

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