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Batteries Components - Battery Type and Comparison

Batteries Components - Battery Type and Comparison

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  Batteries play a huge role in making our lives better. You may have realized that batteries power most gadgets we have today.

  However, many people only know the physical appearance of batteries and how they look. They don’t care very much what’s inside the batteries. And yet, it helps a lot in making decisions that affect their choice.

  Understand that batteries have evolved a lot. That is why you will find today's batteries that are more powerful and with better capacity.

  In this guide, we shall be looking at components of different battery types. Continue reading.

  Lithium-ion Batteries Components

  Have you noticed how much technology in home appliances has changed? For instance, many manufacturers are rushing to create cordless stick vacuum cleaners. The advantage is that you don’t have to struggle to connect long and cumbersome codes.

  Lithium-ion batteries play a huge role in this development. These are lightweight, high-energy batteries that offer the best performance. Their capacity is better than what you will find in any other battery.

  So, what makes li-on batteries so efficient? It mostly has something to do with their composition.

  Here are the four main components in lithium-ion batteries:

  Cathode

  The cathode determines the voltage and capacity of the batteries. As their name suggests, li-ion batteries use chemical reactions of lithium metal to produce electricity. And that is why lithium is inserted into the battery. That space where lithium sits is what we are calling the cathode.

  Lithium is quite unstable in its elemental form. It can cause serious damage if left unchecked on used in this state. Hence, it’s combined with oxygen to form lithium oxide as the cathode.

  The active material is the material that implements the electrode reaction of the battery. And that is the cathode in a li-ion battery.

  A closer look at the cathode reveals a thin aluminum foil used in holding the frame of the cathode. It features a coating of a compound made from the active material, conductive additive, and a binder.

  Also, the active material carries lithium ions.  A conductive additive is included, making it a better conductor.

  The cathode is one of the most important components of a battery when it comes to the overall character of the battery.  This is because the type of material used in the cathode determines the capacity of that battery.  It’s therefore important to pick a batter based on what you see in the active material.

  Anode

  From the cathode, you will find the anode, which sends electrons through the wire. It is also coated with an active material to make it more conductive. The active material on the anode enables the flow of electric current through the circuit. At the same time, it allows the reversible absorption or emission of lithium ions to be released via the anode.

  During the charging process, the anode stores lithium ions. And when you close a circuit, the ions flow back to the cathode via the electrode – what we call discharging. While this is happening, the electrons from lithium ions will be moving along the wire to create electrical power.

  Electrolyte

  The term electrolyte has been common when explaining cathode and anode.  We said lithium ions move it while the electrons move through the wire.  This is why we can use electricity from batteries.

  It will cause a huge problem for the uses if the ions flow through the electrolyte. Hence, it’s a very important component. It’s the medium of movement for lithium ions between the two ends of the battery. Hence, it’s made from materials with high ionic conductivity.

  An electrolyte is made up of salts, solvents, and additives. The salts allow the movement of lithium ions, solvents dissolve the salt, and the additives play specific roles.

  The Separator

  We have seen that the anode and the cathode form the basic performance of your battery. The electrolyte and separate make the battery safer to use.

  As the name suggests, it separates the cathode and the anode. It also prevents the direct movement of electrons, selectively letting only the ions through. Hence, this material should meet all the physical and electrochemical conditions.

  Most batteries use separators made from a synthetic resin like polythene and polypropylene.

  Electric Car Batteries Components

  Battery packs for EVs come in complex designs. They also vary depending on the manufacturer. However, there are certain mechanical and electrical components that are common in all.

  Starting from the actual battery cells, you will find different chemistry, physical shapes, and sizes depending on what the manufacturer wants.

  A battery pack consists of many cells in series and parallel connections. One EV battery can have several hundred individual cells, each with a 3-4 volts nominal voltage.

  A large stack of cells is grouped in smaller stacks they call modules. Several modules are placed in a single pack, where the cells are molded together, completing the electrical path. Modules may also come with cooling systems, temperature monitors, and other parts that improve performance. In many instances, it’s the modules that monitor voltage production in each cell using a Battery Management System.

  Another important component in a battery stack is the fuse. This component limits current flow in the case of a short circuit.

  Apart from these parts, EV batteries also have relays, or contractors, which control electrical power within the battery pack. Most batteries have more than two relays connected between the positive and the negative terminals.

  The Battery Management System controls the overall working of the battery. It contains temperature, voltage, and current sensors. These sensors collect data for optimal performance.

  Solid-state Batteries Components

  Lithium-ion batteries, as discussed above, feature a separator that keeps the cathode and anode separate inside the liquid electrolyte. A solid-state battery has these components, too, only that it uses a solid electrolyte instead of a liquid solution. That is why it’s solid.

  A solid-state battery offers more user safety than a li-ion battery. It has improved stability, solid construction, and more safety. The battery will maintain its physical state even with a damaged electrolyte.

  The anode material features carbon, titanates, li-alloys, and metallic lithium. The cathode has li-based oxides and phosphate, vanadium oxide, and microstructural 5 V materials. Polymer and ceramic electrolytes are used in solid-state.

 

 

 

 

lithium-ion battery  e-bike battery  lithium battery