A new generation of high-power automotive lithium-ion batteries is under development for hybrid electric vehicles to enhance fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions due to growing global environmental issues.
GLOBAL environmental issues, including the depletion of fossil energy reserves and global warming triggered by CO2 build-up, are widely known. People are searching for solutions to both address energy consumption problems and achieve sustainable economic development. The continuing commercialization of HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) and EVs (electric vehicles) using rechargeable (secondary) batteries is one particular indicator for addressing environmental problems. Although most of these automobiles currently use rechargeable Ni-MH (nickel-metal hydride) batteries, it is anticipated that automotive lithium-ion batteries will reach widespread use with their higher performance and greater ability.
This article describes the prospects for these lithium-ion batteries in the automotive sector, current status, future market, characteristics, and what Hitachi is doing to boost their performance.
What is the current status of the automotive lithium-ion battery
The global market for lithium-ion automotive batteries is segmented into four areas: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the rest of the world. Accurately, in the automotive industry, lithium-ion batteries see substantial growth in countries such as China, the US, and other European regions. China is the largest market for both the production and use of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.
At present, partnerships are the main business strategies of the players. Maruti Suzuki, Let's say, partnered with Toshiba and Denso in September 2019 to set up the world's largest automotive lithium-ion battery development facility in Gujarat (India). Many of the automotive lithium-ion battery market's major players are the Denso Corporation, Toshiba Corporation, Exicom Power Solutions, Johnson Controls Inc., A123 Systems Inc. LG Chem Ltd., Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd. (CATL), Panasonic Corporation, BYD Company Ltd., and Samsung SDI Co. Among others, Ltd.
The market for lithium-ion automotive batteries is segmented as a type of battery, type of vehicle, size of power, and region. The market is divided according to battery form into Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO), Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide, and Lithium Iron Phosphate, whereas the market is divided into two-wheeler EVs, three-wheeler EVs and four-wheeler EVs based on the type of vehicle. The demand is bifurcated into 5-47 Wh, 48-99 Wh, 100-250 Kwh, and over 250 kWh based on power size. The business is classified, based on geography, in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the rest of the world.
How is the future market of automotive lithium-ion battery
Rising demand for electric vehicles, compact size, less charging time, and low maintenance costs are factors driving the global market for lithium-ion batteries for automobiles. However, the drive of the regional government towards the adaptability of electric vehicles (green vehicles) is further propelling development for the automotive lithium-ion industry, to reduce the carbon footprint. However, factors like high price, due to the limited number of players in the manufacture of automotive lithium-ion batteries and the limited number of charging stations, hinder market growth.
In particular, the automotive lithium nickel manganese cobalt batteries (NMC) are projected to capture the largest share of approximately 35.3 percent on the global automotive lithium-ion battery market. These batteries are also likely to persist in leading over the forecast period. NMC chemistries are known to improve the lithium-ion batteries' energy density and lifespan. Therefore players invest in NMC batteries.
Tesla's top-selling vehicle versions, Model S and Model X, for example, are fitted with NMC batteries, and the company is now centered on producing an NMC battery that can run over 1lakh km in one charge. In addition, more than 28 million lithium-ion batteries fitted with electric four-wheelers are expected to be sold globally by 2030. Tesla and Chevy bolt sold more than 50,000 electric cars in the United States in Q3.
What are the characteristics of automotive lithium-ion battery
The performance of electric vehicles depends primarily on their battery technology. Nobody's going to choose to buy electric cars that cost more than regular petrol vehicles. An electric vehicle's battery is just as much a heart to a person, so it is essential. It must be the best for a better electric car.
Here are some characteristics of automotive lithium-ion batteries which make them best fit:-
Automotive Lithium-ion batteries contain comparatively low levels of toxic heavy metals in other battery types, such as lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium (NiCd). Cadmium, lead, and mercury have been mainstays in batteries for years. Still, prolonged exposure to these metals and inadequate treatment is toxic to humans, animals, and plants. However, automotive Li-ion batteries are safer than many other forms of batteries. They still need to be recycled properly. So never put your used batteries in with your daily waste.
Lightweight and compact:
Electrodes widely used in automotive lithium-ion batteries are lighter and make batteries smaller and lighter than their older counterparts, including lead-acid batteries. A standard automotive lithium-ion battery with an ampere-hour weighs around the same weight as a 24Ah (6-7 kg) lead-acid battery, but it provides more than double-capacity for comparative purposes.
This unique characteristic is especially useful in head torches for automotive Lithium-ion batteries because we can dramatically increase lighter power and runtime without adding bulk and weight to the battery pack.
High density :
Lithium is a very reactive component which allows large quantities of energy to be released and stored, enabling automotive lithium-ion batteries to pack high power capacity in small quantities. This means they last much longer than other rechargeable batteries while keeping their high level of efficiency.
Older battery types, such as nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride batteries, have a so-called "memory effect" or "lazy battery effect." Whereas Automotive Lithium-ion batteries don't suffer from the memory impact, which means that they always give up their last bit of power, and you can recharge them whether you've used 100% or 25% of their capacity without tedious maintenance needed.
Better charge cycles:
Quality lithium-ion batteries last for 1000 full charging cycles. An entire charge cycle is when the battery is discharged, and using the battery until it has a capacity of 75% and then plugging it in to recharge is not a full charge cycle. Once your battery has recharged back to full, you can only use the 75 percent of the power you left with before recharging your battery; only then has your battery completed a full charge period.
The final verdict
Automotive lithium-ion batteries have become a topic of discussion in today's world. It plays a crucial role in the current market due to its several characteristics. Believe it or not, the future is going to rely on automotive lithium-ion batteries.
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